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Lesson 34الدَّرْسُ الرَّابِعُ وَالثَّلاثُونَ

Active and Passive Voiceالفِعْلُ المَبْنِي لِلْمَعْلُومِ وَالفِعْلُ المَبْنِي لِلْمَجْهُولِ

 

Passive form of past verb tense

  • Now after we have known what active and passive voice mean, we will study how to change the past tense verb from the active into passive voice. The main difference between the active and passive voice is that the doer is known in the former while it is unknown in the latter.
  • In order to change the past tense verb from the active into passive voice, we have to do two things as follows:
    1. Change the vowel of the first radical into đammah.
    2. Change the vowel of the pre-final radical intro kasrah.
  • Study the following example and notice the changes in the first radical and the pre-final radical.

Translation

Transliteration

Verb in the passive voice

Translation

Transliteration

Verb in the active voice

Was written

Kutiba

كُتِبَ

wrote

Kataba

كَتَبَ

Was eaten

‘ukila

أُكِلَ

Ate

Akala

أَكَلَ

Was drunk

Shuriba

شُرِبَ

Drank

Shariba

شَرِبَ

Was brought in

‘udkhila

أُدْخِلَ

Brought in

Adkhala

أَدْخَلَ

Was offered

Quddima

قُدِّمَ

Offered

Qaddama

قَدَّمَ

Was tried

Ħūkima

حُوكِمَ

Tried

ħākama

حَاكَمَ

Was celebrated

‘uħtufila

اُحْتُفِلَ (بـ)

Celebrated

Iħtafala

اِحْتَفَلَ (بـ)

Was accepted

Tuqubbila

تُقُبِّلَ

Accepted

taqabbala

تَقَبَّلَ

Was extracted

‘istukhriĵa

اُسْتُخْرِجَ

Extracted

istakhraĵa

اِسْتَخْرَجَ

Was received

‘ustuqbilla

اُسْتُقْبِلَ

Received

istaqbala

اِسْتَقْبَلَ

·         If we look at these verbs, we find that the past tense verb may be composed of three radicals such as (كَتَبَ، أَكَلَ، شَرِبَ) or four radicals such as (أَدْخَلَ، قَدَّمَ، خَاصَمَ) or five radicals such as (اِسْتَخْرَجَ اِسْتَقْبَلَ). The same technique is used to change all these verbs from the active to the passive voice through changing the vowel of the first radical into đammah and the vowel of the pre-final radical into kasrah. For example, the verb (kataba كَتَبَ) becomes (kutiba كُتِبَ) and the verb (adkhala أَدْخَلَ) becomes (‘udkhila أُدْخِلَ).

 

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